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Two recent reviews of studies considered methodologically sound including the only published meta-analysis, calculated overall effect sizes for domestic violence perpetrator programmes and found small positive effects. Meta analysis of 22 studies indicated that men attending programmes had a 5% greater chance of avoiding reabuse than those not sent to programmes, with both groups more likely to reabuse than not. Small effect sizes are perhaps not surprising as they measure the additive effect of treatment programmes on top of the effects of other legal interventions i.e. arrest, prosecution and probation supervision.

Men appear to learn violence avoidance techniques but less easily assimilate a more respectful approach to their partners. There is also some evidence that programmes may sensitise men to social disapproval of their violence, so that they are less honest about their abusiveness after a programme than before. Whilst rates of abuse appear to decline over time, this appears largely attributable to separation from victimised partners, and a significant proportion of men continue to repeatedly abuse during and after a programme.

Studies that have explored women’s perceptions of programme effects generally indicate overall quality of life improvements, Hire bmt quantity surveyors although a small proportion of women report their lives worsened after their partner joined a programme. There is also a danger that some men may misuse the programme opportunity to cynically bargain their way back into the relationship and then drop-out, learn new control and subjugation techniques from other 10 participants, or apply programme learning abusively.

Many experts conclude that interventions may need to be considerably longer and more intensive and multi-dimensional if they are to impact significantly on underlying thinking. The significant co-occurrence of domestic violence and alcohol problems suggests that those exhibiting one behaviour should be automatically considered likely to exhibit the other and screened accordingly.

Those with such problems are much more likely to drop-out. Brief motivation-based alcohol interventions have shown some success and could easily be incorporated into programmes. Alcohol treatment is best delivered in conjunction with perpetrator programmes. Evidence suggests close integration achieves good outcomes. Both interventions need to operate from a compatible change model and theory base (e.g. cognitive-behavioural), if messages about responsibility, accountability, learned behavior and individual power to change are to be congruent. Couples counseling or family therapy are not considered an appropriate intervention in relationships characterized by fear, violence and power inequalities on evidential as well as ethical grounds, as they imply joint responsibility for violence and may endanger victims.